#

Author or source

Title

Date

1

Chinese classic texts

I Ching

14th century BC

2

Jewish scripture

Hebrew Bible

13th4th century BC

3

Homer

Iliad and Odyssey

8th – early 7th century BC

4

Hindu scripture

Upanishads

7th5th century BC

5

Lao Tsu

Tao Te Ching

3rd century BC

6

Zoroastrian scripture

Avesta

3rd century BC3rd century AD

7

Confucius

Analects

5th4th century BC

8

Thucydides

History of the Peloponnesian War

5th century BC

9

Hippocrates

Works

400 BC

10

Aristotle

Works

4th century BC

11

Herodotus

Histories

5th century BC

12

Plato

The Republic

380 BC

13

Euclid

Elements

280 BC

14

Theravada Buddhist scripture

Dhammapada (Path of the Dharma)

252 BC

15

Virgil

Aeneid

19 BC

16

Lucretius

De Rerum Natura

55 BC

17

Philo of Alexandria

Allegorical Expositions of the Holy Laws

1st century

18

Christian scripture

New Testament

ca. 50–100 AD

19

Plutarch

Parallel Lives

120 AD

20

Cornelius Tacitus

Annals, From the Death of the Divine Augustus

120 AD

21

Valentinus

Gospel of Truth (Gnostic text)

2nd century

22

Marcus Aurelius

Meditations

167

23

Sextus Empiricus

Outlines of Pyrrhonism

150-210 AD

24

Plotinus

Enneads

3rd century

25

Augustine of Hippo

Confessions

400 AD

26

Muslim scripture

Quran

7th century

27

Moses Maimonides

Guide for the Perplexed

1190

28

Text of Judaic mysticism

Kabbalah

12th century

29

Thomas Aquinas

Summa Theologiae

1266–1273

30

Dante Alighieri

The Divine Comedy

1321

31

Desiderius Erasmus

In Praise of Folly

1509

32

Niccolò Machiavelli

The Prince

1532

33

Martin Luther

On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church

1520

34

François Rabelais

Gargantua and Pantagruel

1532 & 1534

35

John Calvin

Institutes of the Christian Religion

1536

36

Nicolaus Copernicus

On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

1543

37

Michael Eyquem de Montaigne

Essays

1580

38

Miguel de Cervantes

Don Quixote

1605 & 1615

39

Johannes Kepler

Harmony of the Worlds

1619

40

Francis Bacon

Novum Organum

1620

41

William Shakespeare

First Folio

1623

42

Galileo Galilei

Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems

1632

43

René Descartes

Discourse on Method

1637

44

Thomas Hobbes

Leviathan

1651

45

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Works

1663–1716

46

Blaise Pascal

Pensées

1670

47

Baruch de Spinoza

Ethics

1677

48

John Bunyan

Pilgrim’s Progress

1678-1684

49

Isaac Newton

Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy

1687

50

John Locke

Essay Concerning Human Understanding

1689

51

George Berkeley

Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge

1710, revised 1734

52

Giambattista Vico

The New Science

1725, revised 1744

53

David Hume

A Treatise of Human Nature

1739–1740

54

Denis Diderot (ed.)

Encyclopédie

1751–1772

55

Samuel Johnson

A Dictionary of the English Language

1755

56

François-Marie de Voltaire

Candide

1759

57

Thomas Paine

Common Sense

1776

58

Adam Smith

The Wealth of Nations

1776

59

Edward Gibbon

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

1776-1787

60

Immanuel Kant

Critique of Pure Reason

1781, revised 1787

61

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Confessions

1781

62

Edmund Burke

Reflections on the Revolution in France

1790

63

Mary Wollstonecraft

Vindication of the Rights of Woman

1792

64

William Godwin

An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice

1793

65

Thomas Robert Malthus

An Essay on the Principle of Population

1798, revised 1803

66

George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Phenomenology of Spirit

1807

67

Arthur Schopenhauer

The World as Will and Idea

1819

68

Auguste Comte

The Course in Positive Philosophy

1830–1842

69

Carl von Clausewitz

On War

1832

70

Søren Kierkegaard

Either/Or

1843

71

Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels

Communist Manifesto

1848

72

Henry David Thoreau

Civil Disobedience

1849

73

Charles Darwin

The Origin of Species

1859

74

John Stuart Mill

On Liberty

1859

75

Herbert Spencer

First Principles

1862

76

Gregor Mendel

Experiments on Plant Hybridization

1866

77

Leo Tolstoy

War and Peace

1868–1869

78

James Clerk Maxwell

Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism

1873

79

Friedrich Nietzsche

Thus Spoke Zarathustra

1883–1885

80

Sigmund Freud

The Interpretation of Dreams

1900

81

William James

Pragmatism

1908

82

Albert Einstein

Relativity

1916

83

Vilfredo Pareto

The Mind and Society

1916

84

Carl Gustav Jung

Psychological Types

1921

85

Martin Buber

I and Thou

1923

86

Franz Kafka

The Trial

1925

87

Karl Popper

The Logic of Scientific Discovery

1934

88

John Maynard Keynes

General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money

1936

89

Jean-Paul Sartre

Being and Nothingness

1943

90

Friedrich von Hayek

The Road to Serfdom

1944

91

Simone de Beauvoir

The Second Sex

1948

92

Norbert Wiener

Cybernetics

1948, revised 1961

93

George Orwell

Nineteen Eighty-Four

1949

94

George Ivanovitch Gurdjieff

Beelzebub’s Tales to His Grandson

1950

95

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Philosophical Investigations

1953

96

Noam Chomsky

Syntactic Structures

1957

97

Thomas Kuhn

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

1962, revised 1970

98

Betty Friedan

The Feminine Mystique

1963

99

Mao Zedong

Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-tung (Little Red Book)

1966

100

B. F. Skinner

Beyond Freedom and Dignity

1971

Advertisements